The year of data collection was not available for these countries.
Breastfeeding practices and policies in WHO European Region Member States
Despite several health benefits and policy initiatives of optimal breastfeeding practices, the findings indicate that EBF remains far below the global recommendation of EBF and the national target in European countries. Moreover, the rates vary substantially across the region.
Even though early initiation of breastfeeding rate is very high in some countries, EBF rates drop rapidly between 4 and 6 months, and are very low at 6 months of age.
Overall, the present findings on breastfeeding practices confirm the result of an earlier analysis of breastfeeding practices 33i.
Although the benefits of EBF are widely regarded, global recommendations on optimal duration of EBF and introduction of complementary feeding are subject to debate in high-income countries 42 Furthermore, there is a wide disparity in Europe concerning the adoption of the WHO Caut un tip adolescent of EBF for the first 6 months of life.
According to a review done in 35only eight European Union countries had adopted this recommendation, while others recommended the introduction of complementary feeding already between 4 and 6 months.
It is important to notice that some experts and advisory committees are also not fully aligned with the WHO global recommendation of EBF. These scientific opinions are not backed by systematic reviews, are not fully aligned with the current recommendation of EBF for the first 6 months, and may have a great deal of influence in EBF practices in many of the WHO European Region Member States.
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Some key policy initiatives on breastfeeding and IYCF nutrition have been introduced in recent years. The very same year the European Charter on Counteracting Obesity was adopted in which the promotion of breastfeeding was strongly highlighted Furthermore the priority action areas of the Vienna Declaration on Nutrition and Noncommunicable Diseases in the Context of Health 47the Global Strategy 25the WHO European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy — 48 and the new European Food and Nutrition Action Plan — 49 strongly emphasized the promotion and support for breastfeeding as a critical element for the development and appropriate nutritional status of children.
Similarly, the Blueprint for Action for the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding in Europe revised was launched to facilitate planning in policy and decision making These policy initiatives, along with the existence of a national policy, programmes and appropriate level of coordination, are some of the elected Dating femei Pyrenees Atlantiques considered essential to increase optimal breastfeeding practices.
The findings of the present paper point to the fact that, where data are available, the majority of the WHO European Region Member States have policy tools in place. However, Dating Site 49 de euro actual Dating Site 49 de euro on breastfeeding practices do suggest that there might be some obstacles to the optimal implementation of policies and standards.
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A recent paper described that supporting mothers in the UK who are exclusively breastfeeding at 1 week to continue breastfeeding until 4 months can be expected to save at least £11 million annually A potential reason for this low rate in the UK is the non-existence of a national breastfeeding, IYCF or nutrition policy or committee, and furthermore no data to support if BFH have been implemented.
There is increasing evidence suggesting that breastfeeding support and Dating Site 49 de euro are needed to enhance the rate of initiation, exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding 52 The BFHI is one of these initiatives, and it has shown to be an effective strategy in increasing the initiation and, to some extent, duration of breastfeeding 54 The proportion of hospitals in a country that are designated as BFH is one of the indicators for assessing country progress and priority on IYCF The data presented herein suggest that the proportion of BFH in each country is low, and in most instances the majority of the countries have no reported data.
Limitations The national data on breastfeeding practices were difficult to compare due to considerable cross-national variation; lack of standardized method and inconsistent use of definitions for data collection were also identified during the current analysis.
Furthermore, data were not necessarily nationally representative and not always of sufficiently high quality. Although other studies have highlighted the need Dating Site 49 de euro data harmonization in European countries 5758Europe still lacks a common strategy for the monitoring of breastfeeding practices.
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Therefore interpretations and comparisons should be done with great caution. With this being said, an initial analysis looking at any changes in breastfeeding prevalence over time was initiated.
It was investigated if years of data collection differed in regard to breastfeeding practices above or below median rates.
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This was not the case, as the span of years was similar regardless of high or low breastfeeding rates. In addition, the findings of the present paper may help in raising awareness on the implementation and acceptance of WHO recommendations as well as attention to national breastfeeding monitoring systems.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Disclaimer: T. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication and they do not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization. Authorship: A. Ethics of human subject participation: Ethical approval was not required.
Andorra No data Armenia 1. Austria 1.
DKV Euro Service: Sediu central și direcții - DKV EURO SERVICE
Structure and quality advice to the maternity clinics in Austria for infants in the first year of life. Azerbaijan 1.
Azerbaijan Belarus 1. Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women Belgium 1. Bosnia and Herzegovina 1. Bulgaria 1.
Bulg J Public Health 4, 11— Croatia 1. Cyprus 1. Breastfeeding rates. Czech Republic 1. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, Session May—June Denmark 1.
Estonia No data Finland 1. France No data Georgia Dating Site 49 de euro. Germany 1.
Rezultate LOTO 6/49, Joker, 5/40, Noroc | Numerele extrase joi, 18 martie 2021
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 50, — Greece 1. Hungary 1. Iceland 1. Ireland 1. Israel 1. Isr Med Assoc J 7, — Italy 1. Acta Paediatr 92, — Kazakhstan 1. Kyrgyzstan 1.